TB-500 is a synthetic fraction of the protein thymosin beta-4, which is present in virtually all human and animal cells. It consists of 43 amino acids and the gene, TMSB4X encodes it.
Thymosin beta 4 is produced in high concentrations in damaged tissues. TB-500 purports to promote endothelial cell differentiation, angiogenesis, keratinocyte migration, collagen deposition, and decreased inflammation. The healing effect of TB-500 is observed in tendons, ligaments, muscle, skin, heart, and eyes.
After an injury, thymosin beta 4 is released by platelets, macrophages, and many other cell types, to protect cells and tissues from further damage and reduce apoptosis, inflammation and microbial growth. Thymosin beta 4 binds to actin and promotes cell migration, which includes the mobilization, migration, and differentiation of stem/progenitor cells, which form new blood vessels and regenerate the tissue. Thymosin beta 4 also decreases the number of myofibroblasts in wounds, resulting in decreased scar formation and fibrosis.
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